How to make a request for an appeal hearing if your Mandatory Reconsideration request has not been got you the benefit award you think you are entitled to
Has your Mandatory Reconsideration request been turned down and the original decision has been upheld?
Do you want to make an application for an tribunal appeal hearing, but don't know how to request an appeal hearing?
An ‘appeal’ means applying to Her Majesty’s Courts & Tribunals Service (HMCTS) for an independent ruling as to whether a decision by DWP is correct or not. Your appeal can be considered by a tribunal which belongs to the system of courts and tribunals which decide people’s rights. The tribunal deals with disputes about social security bene ts and child maintenance. It makes an independent decision on appeals in most cases by means of a hearing.
The information provided here applies to appeals against decisions you have already asked DWP to reconsider and for which they have provided you with a Mandatory Reconsideration Notice. This is the letter from DWP telling you they have reconsidered their decision. It may also apply to a decision made by DWP regarding a dispute which had already resulted in an appeal.
Appeals concerning Universal Credit joint claims
If your appeal relates to Universal Credit and the claim is a joint one made by two adults, there are special arrangements regarding the person in the Universal Credit claim who did not make the appeal. Because this person receives benefit jointly with the appellant (claimant) and will be affected by any outcome of the appeal, HMCTS deal with them as a Joint Party to the appeal.
This means that this Joint Party may also make applications and requests regarding the appeal in addition to the person who made it. Because of this, HMCTS will also write to the Joint Party involved in the appeal as soon as they have their details. This is to make the Joint Party aware of the appeal and to enquire whether they would like to receive correspondence about it separately to the appellant. If separate correspondence is requested, HMCTS will make enquiries separately with each party to the appeal about things like availability and hearing requirements or any special needs.
In practice, you may prefer correspondence to be addressed only to the person who made the appeal and allow them to respond on your behalf as a couple. However, the opportunity to receive correspondence separately is always available to the Joint Party, both when they receive the enquiry letter and at any stage in the appeal. If no reply to the correspondence enquiry letter is received after 14 days, HMCTS will presume no separate correspondence is required by the Joint Party and will correspond primarily with the appellant. The Joint Party will, however, still receive notice of any hearings and decisions made by the tribunal.
If your appeal relates to a Universal Credit joint claim made by 2 adults, and those 2 adults have separated before the appeal is finished, you may need to consider if you want your new address to be kept confitdential from the other person in the appeal as all information will generally be shared between the parties unless we are asked specifically not to.
What to consider
Can I appeal?
You can only appeal where the law gives you a right of appeal. Not every decision made on social security benefits or child maintenance assessments carries a right of appeal. When you get an official letter giving a decision, it must say whether you have a right of appeal against that decision. This is a legal requirement placed upon the Department for Work and Pensions.
As a broad guide, decisions on whether you are entitled to benefit, or liable to receive or pay child maintenance, and if so, how much, do carry a right of appeal. Decisions about administrative matters, such as how or when you might get paid, do not carry a right of appeal.
Your letter should state clearly whether you have the right of appeal. If, however, the decision letter says you do not have a right of appeal, but you think that DWP have made a mistake and you should have the right of appeal, you can send your appeal to HMCTS and get a legal ruling as to whether there is a legal right to hear your case.
You may want to discuss this issue with DWP first. If you do this, you must make it clear in the grounds for your appeal that you believe that you have the right of appeal and why you have that right. This will allow HMCTS to identify your point of dispute and take the necessary action.
If the tribunal rules that you do have a right of appeal, the appeal can go ahead. If, on the other hand, the tribunal rules that you do not have the right to appeal against that decision (that is, your appeal is ‘out of jurisdiction’), your appeal ends there. These types of cases are unusual and it is best to seek advice from a member of the BASE adviser team with knowledge or experience to make sure you are correct.
Making your appeal
The law has certain rules about appeals and HMCTS can only accept your appeal if it meets these legal criteria. Your appeal must:
If your appeal does not meet all these criteria HMCTS may have to return it to you and may not be able to consider your appeal at all unless you provide these details.
Because of the legal requirement to include specific information we strongly recommend that you use an SSSC1 appeal form to make your appeal. The form helps you gather the right information in a step-by-step way and has a checklist you can use to make sure that everything is included.
The form also asks you questions about what type of hearing you would like, dates you would like us to avoid and whether you have any special needs.
If you prefer, you can still make your appeal just by writing a letter, but you risk missing out some of the information the law requires. Also, HMCTS may have to write out to you separately to ask about your hearing requirements and availability and this creates a delay in the process.
If you want to appeal by writing your own letter, use the appeal form as your guide and include in your letter all the things that the appeal form asks for. The information that the form asks for is detailed below.
For social security and child support appeals you have one calendar month from the date when the Mandatory Reconsideration Notice was sent to you in which to appeal. Your appeal is not regarded as made, until it has been received by HMCTS. For example, if the letter giving the decision is sent to you on 15 March, your appeal must arrive in HMCTS by 15 April at the latest.
If you find yourself outside the time-limit, you must give reasons why the appeal is late. If you do not provide reasons your appeal may be returned to you. There is a special section on the appeal form where you can give reasons for lateness.
Please remember, if the time limit is very soon your appeal may be late by the time it arrives in HMCTS, even if it is not late on the day you post it.
If DWP do not object to the reasons for your appeal being late it will generally proceed as though it was received in time. We will write to you if DWP object to your appeal being late. In child maintenance cases, the other party involved in the appeal can also raise an objection to the late appeal.
The appeal form
We recommend that you use appeal form to make your appeal. The form will help you record the type of information you require in a simple step-by-step process.
There are three types of appeal form depending on the type of appeal you are making. These are:
Form SSCS1 is the form to be used by most people making an appeal as more than 95% of appeals against DWP decisions concern entitlement to different types of benefit. You can obtain forms:
Completing form SSCS1
Not all parts of the form need to be completed by everybody. People making appeals have different circumstances, so you may nd that you only need to complete some sections of the form. Everyone, however, must complete Sections 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8.
You should use black ink to complete the form. This is because the form must be photocopied by HMCTS and sent to DWP and coloured ink, even blue ink, does not show up well in photocopies. You should also complete the form using BLOCK CAPITALS so that all the important details are clear unless the section on the form tells you otherwise.
If your appeal relates to a Universal Credit joint claim, you should consider the involvement of the other person in the claim with regard to the appeal when completing the form.
Section 1 About the decision you are appealing against
Section 1 is all about the decision you are appealing against. It is helpful if you have a copy of your decision letter, the ‘Mandatory Reconsideration Notice’, to hand when you are completing this part of the form. The law says you can only appeal against certain decisions and that you must include a copy of the mandatory reconsideration notice with the appeal. This section helps you make sure you do that. In this section you need to:
You can only appeal against a decision which carries the right of appeal.
Your decision letter will tell you this. If you tick ‘No’ to this question, you should only do so if you are sure that your decision legally carries the right of appeal. HMCTS will ask a Judge to check this for you and will let you know the outcome.
Section 2 About you
This section is all about you. When we are referring to ‘You’ we mean the person who the mandatory reconsideration notice was addressed to who is making the appeal. Here we need you to tell us who you are and where you live so that we can write to you and so that DWP can identify who you are when we ask them to explain why they came to their decision in your case. In this section you will need to:
Section 3 About a child or other person you are appealing for
This section is all about a person you are appealing on behalf of. You only need to complete this section if you are appealing on behalf of someone whose affairs you are looking after.
This could be a child you are the parent of or it might be an adult who is unable to manage their bene ts for themselves. If the person is an adult, you must have been formally appointed to act on their behalf by DWP, or by a court, because of the person’s condition.
If you are just helping the person with their appeal in an informal arrangement, you will be acting as their representative and will need to complete Section 4 instead.
Section 3 should only be used to record the details of a person who you have a legal responsibility for. In this section you will need to:
Section 4 About your representative (if you have one)
This section is all about your representative, if you have one. Not everyone has a representative and if you do not have one you can skip this section and move straight to Section 5.
If your appeal is regarding a Universal Credit joint claim, it would be helpful to make it clear that the representative is representing you jointly.
You are entitled to have a representative of your choice, but you must make the arrangements for this yourself. Your representative does not have to be legally qualified. He or she could be a friend or relative, but bear in mind that your representative will be provided with evidence relevant to the appeal, such as medical reports which you may regard as confidential. In choosing a representative, you should bear in mind what the role of a tribunal representative is. A good representative should be able to:
You are only likely to get such support from a trained representative from a reputable agency. A poor representative can actually damage your prospects of success. Most people who have a representative are represented by a professional organisation such as an advice centre or welfare rights service. In this section on the form you will need to:
The court service will contact your representative about your appeal and tell them things like hearing dates and they will ask DWP to send them as well as you a copy of the papers relating to your appeal.
If you want to have a representative, but have not managed to get in touch with an advice agency yet, you may still submit your appeal and tell the court service when you have a representative at a later stage, however, you must do this in writing. This is because they need your written consent to take instructions from a person acting on your behalf. Often your representative will arrange this for you.
Please remember, even if you have a representative, the tribunal at the hearing will almost certainly want to speak directly with you, person-to-person, asking you questions and listening to your answers. This is because you will have first-hand knowledge and experience of the things the tribunal will most want to hear, whereas your representative would only be able to give a second-hand version.
Section 5 About your appeal
This section is about the reasons for your appeal and, if it applies, the reasons why your appeal is late.
Grounds for appeal
The section is all about the reasons or ‘grounds’ for your appeal and whether your appeal is within the time limit. In the section headed Grounds for Appeal you should write down the reasons why you think the decision is wrong. You do not need to complete this section in BLOCK CAPITALS.
Your reasons do not have to be lengthy or written in legal language, but you need to say more than just, ‘I disagree‘. You should explain simply why you think the decision you are appealing against is incorrect. It might be useful for you to state what you consider the correct decision should be.
The more specific you are about the points of dispute, the easier it is for the tribunal to understand what your grievance is and to focus their attention on this before the hearing. For example, in an appeal regarding Universal Credit, it is helpful to write down which elements of the Universal Credit award you disagree with. These are the composite parts of the Universal Credit award which are intended to reflect your household’s needs.
You are welcome to attach evidence which you feel may be supportive to your appeal, but you should not delay appealing while you obtain this.
If you need more space to write your reasons you can attach a separate sheet of paper.
Is your appeal in time?
The second part of Section 5 asks you to confirm whether your appeal is in time. Your appeal will be considered late if it is received in HMCTS more than one calendar month after the date on the Mandatory Reconsideration Notice.
If your appeal is late, or if it will be late by the time HMCTS receive it, you must provide reasons why it is late. If your appeal is received late and no reasons are provided, HMCTS will return the appeal to you. Use this section here to record reasons for lateness if this applies. You do not need to complete this section in BLOCK CAPITALS.
An appeal received late with reasons for lateness provided will be treated by HMCTS as being received in time, unless DWP raises an objection to it. If an objection is received, we may send a copy of it to you and may invite you to comment on it before referring it to a Judge. The Judge will review your case and decide if there are any merits in the arguments. In child maintenance cases, the other party involved in the appeal can also raise an objection to the late appeal. We will write to you if anyone objects to the reasons for the appeal being late.
Section 6 About your choice of hearing
This section is all about how you would like the tribunal to make a decision on your appeal. Normally, HMCTS will arrange a hearing for your appeal and you or your representative will be expected to attend. HMCTS call this having ‘an ORAL hearing’.
At an oral hearing, you, and your representative, if you have one, will be given the opportunity to meet the tribunal and put forward your case in person and to answer any questions the tribunal may have. DWP also have the right to attend the oral hearing and put forward their case. The tribunal can also direct which type of hearing takes place.
The alternative to an oral hearing is having your case decided by the tribunal without a hearing. Neither you nor DWP (nor the other party in child maintenance appeals or the Joint Party in a Universal Credit joint appeal) will attend and the tribunal will come to its decision alone on the basis of what is in the appeal papers.
The tribunal will consider your letter of appeal, any supporting evidence you have provided and the DWP’s response to your appeal. HMCTS refer to this as having ‘a PAPER hearing’, though it is not strictly speaking a hearing. A paper hearing will take place if all parties agree to it and no-one has asked for an oral hearing.
DWP is also given the opportunity to express their preference for the type of hearing they would like. An oral hearing will only be arranged if:
If you change your mind after returning the enquiry form and want to switch from having your case decided on the papers to having an oral hearing, or vice-versa, please tell HMCTS as soon as possible. As long as you have not been given a hearing date, you can do this by phone. If you have received a hearing date, however, you will need to put this in writing. It is too late to change after the tribunal has made its decision on your appeal.
One thing you are likely to want to know, when deciding whether to choose a hearing or not, is where your appeal hearing would take place. HMCTS holds appeal hearings at a national network of over 100 locations throughout England, Scotland and Wales. There is a tribunal venue in most cities and towns. HMCTS will try to arrange for your hearing to take place at the venue that is nearest to you. A list of all venues is available on our website www.justice.gov.uk
If you would prefer a hearing but you would be unable to travel to the tribunal venue, because you are so severely disabled that you are housebound, you can request what is called an ‘Out-of-centre’ hearing. This would involve the exceptional step of the tribunal hearing your appeal at your home or at an alternative location. A request for an Out-of-centre hearing should be supported by a letter from your doctor confirming that you are unable to travel at all, even by taxi.
Once you have decided what type of hearing you want, tick the box to make your choice on the form. There are two choices:
If you have ticked the box to say that you want to attend a hearing, you should move on to Section 7. If you ticked the box to say that you want your appeal decided on the papers, you can skip Section 7 completely and go straight to Section 8.
Section 7 Oral hearings – your needs and requirements
This section is all about your needs and requirements for an oral hearing. If you do not want an oral hearing, you should skip this section. If you need to write in any of the boxes in this Section you do not need to use BLOCK CAPITALS.
For Universal Credit appeals where the claim is a joint claim, the needs and requirements of the partner in the claim should also be considered as the tribunal may expect them to also attend a hearing
Question 1 – Your availability
Because you want to be present at the hearing, you should write down here any dates or times you would be unavailable for a hearing.
This might be a regular date when you are unavailable, for example, every Thursday, because of domestic or other commitments or you might be aware of specific dates you will be unavailable, such as hospital appointments or booked holidays. You should consider unavailability for 6 months ahead. Remember, you can always tell HMCTS of any changes to your availability by telephoning or writing to them.
Question 2 – Your needs
HMCTS need to make sure your hearing takes place in a location which is suitable for you and that you can access easily. Please tell us in this section about any particular needs you may have. This might be something like a hearing loop or special requirements because of a disability or mobility issue.
Question 3 – Your signer/interpreter and language requirements let HMCTS know here whether you (or the Joint Party in a Universal Credit joint appeal) require an interpreter to assist you at the hearing.
Like the courts, tribunals insist on using independent, professional interpreters and signers.
Relying on a friend or relative is not acceptable. Your interpreter could be a person who interprets verbally to translate English into another language or this could be a sign interpreter who translates spoken words into British Sign Language. If you tick ‘Yes’ in this section you must also record the language and dialect you require.
When HMCTS arrange your hearing, THEY will ensure that an interpreter is provided who meets your needs.
Question 4 –Your notice of hearing
The law requires HMCTS to give you a minimum of 14 days’ notice of your hearing. This gives you enough time to prepare for your hearing, but it also prevents HMCTS from offering you a hearing date which becomes available at short notice because of, for example, a cancellation. If you prefer, they can also give you less notice than 14 days, but only if you agree to this.
If you have a representative, you may want to discuss this matter with them as they may need to have 14 days’ notice of any hearing. This does not mean that we will only give you less than 14 days’ notice of the hearing, but it means that we can do if an earlier date is available.
If you agree to receiving less than 14 days’ notice of your hearing, please tick the ‘Yes’ box here, otherwise tick ‘No’. If you have ticked ‘Yes’, please make sure that you have provided your phone number in Section 1 as HMCTS will need to telephone you to arrange a short notice hearing.
Section 8 –Your signature
This section is for your signature. It is a legal requirement for your appeal to be signed. Please sign your name here, write your name in block capitals in the box underneath and record the date that you signed the form in the box provided.
If you do not sign your appeal form, HMCTS may have to return the appeal to you for you to sign it.
If you have named a representative at Section 4, signing the appeal form will also give HMCTS your permission to correspond with them and discuss your appeal with them should the need arise.
What to do now Where to send your appeal
Where you send your appeal depends on where you live. There are two addresses to send your appeal to and these are shown on the appeal form.
If you live in England or Wales, you should send your appeal form to: HMCTS SSCS Appeals Centre
PO Box 1203 BRADFORD BD1 9WP
If you live in Scotland, you should send your appeal to: HMCTS SSCS Appeals Centre
PO Box 27080 GLASGOW G2 9HQ
If you are currently living overseas, you should send your appeal to the HMCTS office which would normally handle your appeal based on:
Checking the appeal form Checklist
There is a checklist at the end of the appeal form. You do not have to use this, but it will help you to make sure that you have provided all the information required.
This part of the form gives you the numbers to call if you require the appeal form in an alternative format such as large print or in Welsh.
Completing Form SSCS2
For information on completing the SSC2 form, for child maintenance appeals, please read the guidance in this section. Otherwise, you may move onto the section After you send in your appeal.
Completing the Appeal Form for Child Maintenance appeals (SSC2)
The Child Maintenance appeal form (SSCS2) has the same sections as the SSCS1 form, but in a slightly different order. The instructions for those sections are the same as those given above. Please follow the guidance given under each of the headings and use this to complete the section with the same name in the SSCS2 form. In addition to the other sections, the form has two additional sections. These are: About the Other Person in the Maintenance Assessment (Section 4) and About Confidentiality (Section 5). Guidance on how to complete these sections is provided below. These are included because child maintenance appeals automatically involve the other person in the child maintenance arrangement (the person receiving or making payments). This is called the ‘other party’ and this person has a say in how the appeal is dealt with.
Section 4 About the Other Person in the Maintenance Assessment
This section is all about the other person involved in the child support assessment. You are the person making the appeal, but the person who receives child maintenance payments or is required to make them must also be identified and involved in the appeal.
In this section you should provide the details of the title, name(s) and surname and address of the other party to the appeal. If you do not know the person’s address, please indicate this by ticking the ‘No’ box in this section. HMCTS will obtain the other party’s address by writing to the Child Maintenance Group.
If there are more than one other person involved in the child maintenance assessment, you should record their details on a separate piece of paper and include this with your appeal form.
Section 5 About Confidentiality
This section is all about whether you want your address to be kept confidential from the other party to the appeal. As the other party has a right to see all the evidence submitted as part of the appeal there will be occasions when certain types of evidence, such as bills or bank statements, are received which will include your home address. The other party to the appeal will have the right to see this evidence. If, however, you do not want the other party to know your current address (and they do not already know it), you can ask for your address to be kept confidential. If you do this, any piece of evidence received relating to you will be scrutinised by HMCTS staff and will be edited to remove all address details before it is circulated.
Use this section to indicate whether you want your home address to be kept con dential.
6. After you send in your appeal Will my appeal be accepted?
After you send in your appeal, HMCTS will check it to make sure it complies with all the legal requirements to be accepted as a valid appeal.
If there are any problems with your appeal, HMCTS will return it to you with a letter explaining what the problem is and what you can do to resolve the issue. If this happens, you should follow the advice given in the letter. If you do not do this HMCTS may ‘strike out’ your appeal, or bring it to an end, because you have not provided the information requested.
In some circumstances, HMCTS can allow an appeal to be accepted even if all the requirements are not met. This process is called ‘waiving’ a requirement which means that HMCTS can, in certain circumstances, allow the appeal to proceed by dispensing with some of the technical requirements which are normally compulsory.
The circumstances in which this can be done vary significantly, so as much as possible you should provide all the information required rather than rely on an expectation that HMCTS will apply a waiver.
If your appeal can be accepted as valid, HMCTS will send an acknowledgement letter to you. Depending on whether you have already provided details of your hearing requirements (for example, on the appeal form) HMCTS may also send you an enquiry form to find out what these are. If you have made an appeal on the form and have answered all the questions, this should not be necessary.
HMCTS will also send a copy of your appeal to DWP and ask them to provide a ‘response’ to your appeal. The response is a report prepared by DWP regarding your appeal which explains how they came to their decision. For appeals regarding the Personal Independence Payment and Universal Credit, there is a time limit of 28 days for the response to be provided.
DWP also have the right to ask for an extension of the time limit and, if this happens a judge will consider the merits of their request. We will write to you is this happens.
After HMCTS has received and registered your appeal, it will make up a case file for you and then transfer your appeal to one of the regional centres which deals with the area where you live. This happens for all appeals except those dealt with in Scotland where the appeal is received and progressed at the same of office. There are seven offices across England and Wales and Scotland which handle social security and child support appeals and each has responsibility for a particular geographical area of the country. The offices are based in:
If your appeal is valid, the letter you receive will have the address of the regional centre which will handle your appeal and the relevant telephone number. This office will take all future actions on your appeal such as arranging a hearing and answering your enquiries.
7. What will DWP do with my appeal?
Considering the appeal
DWP will look at their decision again in light of the information you have put in your appeal and any new or additional evidence you may have provided. DWP has the option, at any time up to the tribunal hearing, of changing the decision under appeal if they think there are reasons for doing so. If they decide to revise the decision to your advantage, DWP will tell HMCTS this and your appeal will automatically lapse (that is, come to an end). they will write to you if this happens. The new decision made by DWP will also carry the right of appeal if you wish to challenge it. If DWP intend to do this, they will contact you first to check if you are content with the new decision and will only proceed if you agree.
Objecting to the appeal
DWP also has the right to object to your appeal if they are of the opinion that there is a defect in your appeal for some reason. This will generally be because they believe HMCTS may have overlooked something and accepted an appeal which DWP think is not valid. DWP can object to an appeal for a number of reasons, but the main ones are:
If DWP objects to your appeal they will write to HMCTS. HMCTS may then send a copy of their objection to you and may invite you (or the Joint Party in a Universal Credit Joint Appeal) to comment on it before referring it to a Judge. The Judge will review your case and decide whether there is any merit in DWP’s arguments.
If your appeal proceeds without an objection, DWP will send to you and to HMCTS a copy of their ‘response’ to your appeal. This arrives as a bundle of papers, which can contain up to 150 pages or more, depending on the type of benefit and the history of the claim.
You should not be put off by its size; you will already be familiar with a lot of the contents, such as copies of your claim form. Some responses may be much shorter based on the issues involved. The response includes:
The response will arrive some weeks after you originally sent in your appeal. If you have supplied the name of a representative on your appeal form, a copy of the response will also be sent to your representative.
You should read the response when you receive it or talk to your representative about it (if you have one). Your representative will look at the case DWP is putting across and will advise you as to whether you have a case. If you do not have a representative, you must read through the papers and come to this decision yourself.
The BASE adviser team will be happy to answer any questions you have on this article or any other benefits questions that you need help and support with.
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